North Idaho Plants and Trees Guide
Trees of The Idaho
lofty elevations, favorable climate, and four distinct seasons, Idaho is
the perfect home for "softwood" trees.
Softwoods have needles instead of the broad leaves found on hardwood trees
such as cherry, walnut, and oak. Softwoods are also known as "conifers" or
cone-bearing trees because they reproduce using seed containers called
Softwood lumber is lightweight and flexible, yet strong and easy to saw,
plane, and nail. These properties make it ideal for home construction, and
its long, strong fibers make excellent paper products.
People sometimes use the words "pine trees" when referring to softwoods.
While the Idaho softwood forest contains some species of pine (ponderosa
pine, lodgepole pine, and western white pine -- Idaho's state tree), it
also is home to hemlock, western larch, western red cedar, Engelmann
spruce, Douglas-fir, subalpine fir, and grand fir.
Live in Neighborhoods
20 tree species live in Idaho's forests, and each has a preferred growing
range. Many factors contribute to the relative suitability of a growing
range for each species of tree. While soil composition, moisture, slope
direction, inter-species competition, microclimate, and history of fire
each play a role, elevation is the most important factor in defining a
tree's "neighborhood." As elevation increases, temperatures decrease and
moisture levels rise. Trees that require more water and can withstand
colder temperatures tend to be found higher on the slopes. Other species
that can withstand higher temperatures and drier soils grow at lower
North Idaho Evergreens
All Idaho Tree Species
North Idaho Nurseries
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Native Plants of North Idaho
From the Idaho Native Plant Society/White Pine Chapter
In recent years, native plant materials have
received long overdue attention for applications in home landscaping, land
restoration, and wildlife plantings. There are many reasons for the
increased enthusiasm for native plants. The desire to decrease water and
nutrient inputs has certainly provided impetus. In an area like the Palouse,
natives also provide welcome diversity to the relatively limited list of
well-adapted ornamentals. This guide was developed in response to inquiries
we have received about native plant materials for various applications.
Because there is concern that people will dig plants from their native
habitat, we have only included species that are available from nurseries or
are easily propagated from cuttings or seed. None of the plants listed are
rare. Increased interest in the cultivation of native plants will provide
incentive for nurseries to expand their selection.
This guide highlights those species for which
we have the best, first-hand information, with an emphasis on woody plants.
We define northern Idaho as that portion of the State north of the Salmon
River. We've drawn attention to some of our favorites, as well as those
that may present problems in certain situations:
= one of the few select at the top of our
! = watch out! May not be suitable for a
The caution alert (!) is for home gardeners.
Plants that are too aggressive for the home garden can be the best
materials for such applications as erosion control and streambank
In addition to those listed, there are many
more interesting native plants! Only a small portion of Idaho's herbaceous
species has been tried. New information is constantly becoming available, so
we hope to update and expand this guide within the next couple of years. We
would be happy for any feedback you might wish to give.
Much of the information contained in this guide
comes from the personal experience of Fred Johnson, former Professor of
Forest Resources at the University of Idaho and active member of the Idaho
Native Plant Society.
(usually over 8 feet)
(All shrubs are deciduous unless noted
Sitka (Alnus sinuata).
This is the alder that forms large glades at mid to upper elevations in the
mountains. It is notable for its very long male catkins and clusters of
dainty woody cones. Height can be controlled by vigilant pruning. Why this
over the other three species from northern Idaho? It's more delicate and
flowers later. Other alder species are either trees, or more tree-like (see
Broadleaf Trees). 30+ years longevity.
Bittercherry (Prunus emarginata).
A small tree or large shrub that will tolerate dry sites. Small, bright
red fruits are unpalatable to humans but utilized by birds. Requires a
sunny spot. Leaves are “oblanceolate”-rounded at the tips and tapered
toward the stem.
Cascara or buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana).
Small tree; pruning promotes shrub form. Reliable, yellow fall color,
otherwise not unusual.
Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana).
Tall, to 40 feet, with long, cylindrical clusters of fragrant white flowers
and the familiar, (usually near-black) very tart cherries famed for jellies
and syrups. A major drawback is its tendency to produce new plants from the
roots-so give it lots of room to make a colony. Prominent, black insect
galls make stems distinctive in winter.
Currant, golden (or yellow; Ribes
aureum). One of our very best tall shrubs; grows to 15 ft in
Moscow. Very early-is in full leaf with gorgeous dangling clusters of
bright yellow flowers about the time of first daffodils.
Hawthorn, black (Crataegus douglasii).
The dominant shrub of “eyebrows” and other moist sites on the Palouse and
the dominant shrub of riparian areas. Forms dense clumps that make
excellent cover for birds and small animals. Very dark blue berries, and
thorns 1/2 to 1 inch long. Leaves turn deep crimson to purple-red in fall.
Seed germination is low, but plants are available from nurseries. Some
report a severe leaf ailment in Moscow.
Hawthorn, red (Crataegus columbiana).
A shrub of streamsides, but warmer environs than black hawthorn. Red
hawthorn is found in the canyons of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers.
Thorns are 1 to 3 inches long. For some, the attractive, bright-red berries
make this preferable to black hawthorn in spite of the longer thorns.
Juniper, Rocky Mountain (Juniperus
scopulorum). See Conifers.
Maple, Rocky Mountain (Acer glabrum
var. douglasii). Most
northern Idaho maples are this variety. Assumes a tree form if not injured
or pruned. Will easily grow to 20 feet or more. Pleasant form and light- to
mid-green deciduous leaves; unremarkable gray bark; yellow fall color.
Mock-orange (Philadelphus lewisii).
Mountain mahogany, curlleaf (Cercocarpus
ledifolius). Small, narrow,
evergreen leaves and interesting, feathery fruits. Easily established.
Although at home in the dry river canyons, it seems to persist in Moscow.
Provides nice contrast to broad-leaf plants. Likely to be very
Ninebark, Pacific (Physocarpus capitatus).
Less common than P. malvaceus, this is disjunct in Idaho from west
of the Cascades. It can easily reach 15-20 feet. A bit later to flower than
its smaller cousin, but otherwise pretty much the same. Will take a
high water table and (probably) is not as drought-resistant as P.
Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia).
See Medium Shrubs.
Syringa, or mock-orange (Philadelphus
lewisii). The Idaho State flower. Easily established, it will
easily reach 20 ft, so leave lots of room. Delectably perfumed white flowers
reminiscent in form and fragrance of orange blossoms. Lots of dead wood to
prune and occasional seedlings.
Willow, Scouler's (Salix scouleriana).
Our local "pussy-willow", it is equally at home on dry hillsides as along
streams. Easily transplanted and grown. Older specimens susceptible to
weevils which kill the stem above the attack.
Yew, Pacific (Taxus brevifolia).
(5 to 8 feet)
Buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis).
In northern Idaho, found only in the Kootenai Valley, where there are two
fruit-color phases-orange and red. Tiny, very fragrant flowers.
Currant, golden or yellow (Ribes aureum).
see Tall Shrubs.
Currant, red-flowering (Ribes
sanguineum). Although common west of the Cascades, this is one of
Idaho's rarities. Blooms profusely in alternate years, with a few flowers in
the odd years; 2 to 3-inch dangling clusters of bright pink flowers.
Occasionally sets seed and produces seedlings. Although available from
conventional nurseries, if we can get this one going from Idaho seed-great!
Nursery stock will undoubtedly be from coastal plants, however plants from
the Puget Sound area appear to be hardy in Moscow.
Currant, snow (Ribes niveum).
Early white flowers and exceptional edible fruits (for Idaho species). A
plant of streamsides in the Idaho bunchgrass zone. As an ornamental, this
is no match for R. sanguineum or R. aureum.
Dogwood, red-osier (Cornus sericea, C.
stolonifera). As an ornamental,
primarily valued for its red twigs in winter, but also an excellent plant
for stream restoration because of its spreading growth habit and ability to
root from cuttings. Will go to 15 feet or more but prunes easily from the
base. Easily propagated from stem cuttings.
Elderberry, blackbead (Sambucus racemosa
var. melanocarpa). Early
clusters of small, white or creamy flowers. Needs a rather sunny spot.
Elderberry, blue (Sambucus cerulea).
Great clusters of tiny, white or creamy flowers give way to light blue
edible berries in fall. A favorite food of black bears.
Mountain-ash, Rocky Mountain (Sorbus
scopulina). Nice, many-stemmed
form. Reliably produces flat-topped clusters of ill-smelling, tiny, white
flowers and bright orange-red fruits that attract birds. Plants with sticky
buds have fire-blight resistance.
Ninebark (Physocarpus malvaceus).
Reliable, two-inch clusters of white flowers in mid-spring; fruit
unattractive. Leaves turn reddish-orange some autumns. Also see
Physocarpus capitatus under tall shrubs.
Oceanspray (Holodiscus discolor).
Excellent vase-shaped form when open grown, and also reasonably tolerant of
shade. A late flowering of dense, drooping clusters of tiny white flowers.
Good winter form, but some consider the persistent old flower clusters to be
!Oregon-grape, tall (Berberis
aquifolium). With a natural range barely entering northern Idaho,
this holly-leaved evergreen has escaped from cultivation in places,
including the Palouse. Valued primarily for its interesting foliage, it
also has great-smelling early yellow flowers and edible (in jelly) blue
fruits. It will go well over 5 feet if left unpruned and is an aggressive
spreader by both seed and suckers (get seedlings out before year two or have
more trouble extracting them). In harsh winters, winter-killed leaves turn
brown and hang on...and on. For a holly-leaved evergreen with fewer bad
habits see Oregon grape, creeping under Low Shrubs).
Rose, baldhip (Rosa gymnocarpa).
Although a low shrub in the forest understory, attains a height of 8 feet
in cultivation. Small, pink flowers are unimpressive. Armed with dense,
Rose, Nootka (Rosa nutkana).
Bears plenty of 2-inch, pink flowers, but few fruits.
Rose, Wood's (Rosa woodsii).
Flowers and “hips” in clusters; red stems in winter. Needs a sunny spot.
Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia).
Earliest flowering of all our native shrubs. White flowers; edible blue
fruits similar to huckleberries in form, but not really worthwhile in
Sumac, smooth (Rhus glabra).
Distinctive, slowly spreading shrub of canyon grasslands, with attractive
open form and large, pinnate leaves similar to “tree of heaven”. Some say
red color of fruits and deep-orange fall foliage are not as good as in the
wild. Full sun.
(ordinarily under 4 feet)
Bearberry or kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos
uva-ursi). This ground-hugging, evergreen groundcover has already
been discovered by commercial landscapers. Though at home in the forest
understory, it is very drought tolerant and forms a dense cover of small,
leathery leaves. Tiny, pink heather-type flowers.
!Blackberries and raspberries (Rubus
species). Although our native blackberries are more slender and
graceful, and less aggressive, than the Himalayan blackberries of roadsides,
they can be difficult to control in a home landscape. However, they may
have applications for naturalized areas or wildlife plantings. In addition
to the four listed below, other native species include R. idaeus
(wild red-raspberry) and R. leucodermis (black-cap raspberry). This
is an interesting instance where the vernacular terms “raspberry” and
“blackberry” make a technical distinction that the Latin names do not. That
is, that the fruit of a raspberry separates from the central receptacle when
ripe, whereas the blackberries come away with the central receptacle intact.
Pacific blackberry (R. ursinus).
Our only native blackberry. Slender, trailing stems mostly stay on the
ground, but the more vigorous can attain heights of 6 to 8 feet; dioecious
(separate male and female plants). Fruits with excellent flavor.
Snow bramble or snow dewberry (R. nivalis).
An excellent trailing groundcover for shady sites. Interesting,
Strawberry bramble (R. pedatus).
A plant of the forest understory in the Panhandle. Trails by runners
from which it can be propagated.
Thimbleberry (R. parviflorus).
An aggressive spreader with dramatic, large leaves. Delicious, fragile, red
raspberries, but produces few flowers in shade. No prickles.
Kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi).
Oregon grape, creeping (Berberis repens,
Mahonia repens). Evergreen, holly-like leaves vary from dark
green to rose with age and season. Leaves are dull in texture rather than
shiny as in B. aquifolium. Forms low mounds under 2 feet and spreads
slowly. Clusters of bright yellow flowers in spring and waxy blue berries in
Sagebrush, big (Artemisia tridentata).
Barely reaching northern Idaho in the Snake River canyon, this icon of the
west is desirable for its soft, blue foliage in full sun. In our area,
needs intensive pruning to keep it low (and some say to make it persist).
!Snowberry, common (Symphoricarpos albus).
A fairly unremarkable low, honeysuckle-like shrub, but not a climber like
its relative, creeping snowberry (S. mollis). Interesting large,
white berries remain through winter if not eaten by birds. Give this plenty
of room! Spreading by underground suckers, it's quite willing to take over
your yard. Useful for naturalized areas and wildlife plantings. Susceptible
to powdery mildew in Moscow.
Alders (Alnus species).
Our native alders are streamside plants in the wild and require summer
irrigation or a high water table. They have received little horticultural
attention. Flowers are inconspicuous and fall color unremarkable. Alders
fix nitrogen and are valuable for revegetating disturbed sites.
Alder, red (Alnus rubra).
Although ubiquitous west of the Cascades, this alder species is rare in
Idaho. A tall tree, it is similar to white alder with which it hybridizes.
Alder, Sitka (Alnus sinuata).
See Tall Shrubs.
Alder, thinleaf (Alnus incana tenuifolia).
Smallest of our tree-type alders, and usually multistemmed, this grows
easily, and will likely reach 15 feet or more, but height can be controlled.
Long-lived. Cones are susceptible to an unattractive smut fungus in our
Alder, white (Alnus rhombifolia).
Tall, fast-growing tree of low-elevation river canyons and streamsides.
Nice gray bark. Unusual in cultivation, but there is some evidence that it
fares better than either red or thinleaf alder.
!Aspen, quaking (Populus tremuloides).
An extremely attractive, fast-growing tree. The caution is for home
landscapes, as aspen is not suitable for formal settings because of its
AGGRESSIVE spread by extensive suckers. For the same reason, it is an
excellent tree for wildlife, stream restoration, and naturalized areas.
Available at conventional nurseries.
Birch, river (Betula occidentalis).
Fast-growing, small to medium-sized tree, generally with several stems, and
gray bark. It has smaller leaves than alders and no woody cones. It grows
along streamsides at the western edge of the mountains and along perennial
streams of the Palouse and scablands. Hybridizes with B. papyrifera
where their ranges overlap.
Birch, paper (Betula papyrifera).
Variety subcordata, native to the Clearwater Mountains, does not have
the striking white bark for which the species is known. Variety commutata
occurs from Coeur d'Alene north, and most mature trees have white bark,
which does not develop until trees are at least 15 years old.
Cascara or buckthorn (Rhamnus purshiana).
See Tall Shrubs.
Cottonwood, black (Populus trichocarpa).
A fast-grower of northern Idaho streams and rivers. Glossy, deep-green
foliage. Although not spreading by suckers, it is too big and vigorous for
Maple, Rocky Mountain (Acer glabrum).
See Tall Shrubs.
All of our native conifers do well in
cultivation except whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) which is a very,
very slow grower. In situations where irrigation is not possible, plant
trees adapted to your elevation zone. The following list includes all but a
few, high-elevation, species.
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii).
Not a true fir, but with soft, fir-like foliage and interesting cones.
Fir, grand (Abies grandis).
Flat sprays of shiny needles.
Fir, subalpine (Abies lasiocarpa).
The majestic spire-shaped conifer of our highest elevations. Soft,
blue-green needles. Makes a lovely garden specimen.
Hemlock, western (Tsuga heterophylla).
Juniper, Rocky Mountain (Juniperus
scopulorum). More of a tall
shrub than a tree. Fills an important need in that it is one of only two
native conifers that is not a large tree. Very limited in distribution in
northern Idaho, but easily grown. Its similar-appearing relative, eastern
redcedar (J. virginiana) has been widely planted in windbreaks in the
western U.S., from which it occasionally escapes. Numerous cultivars are
available, most of which appear more attractive but less natural than the
native variety. Sun.
Larch, western (Larix occidentalis).
Unique in losing all of its needles each fall, this conifer has great
potential for the home landscape. Graceful branching pattern and open
crown; brilliant yellow fall color. New spring foliage is a light
Pine, ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa).
The best choice for warm exposures at lower elevations.
Pine, lodgepole (Pinus contorta).
Short-needled pine with a wide range of ecological tolerance. Fast-growing
but easily trained. Will probably thrive in all but the warmest areas.
Pine, western white (Pinus monticola).
Distinctive for its neat whorls of horizontal branches. Cultivars
available which are 60% blister rust resistant.
Redcedar, western (Thuja plicata).
Dominant tree of northern Idaho, including the wettest sites. Distinctive
for its fibrous bark, fluted base, and drooping, lacey foliage. Not suitable
for dry sites.
Spruce, Engelmann (Picea engelmannii).
Associated with cold, wet habitats in the wild.
Yew, Pacific (Taxus brevifolia).
Our native yew is a shrub or small tree with unusual platy bark and very
interesting variation of a cone. Needs summer moisture.
A multitude of native forbs (herbaceous plants
other than grasses) conform well to the home garden and there are
many more for which we have no first-hand information. The following can
provide beautiful and interesting additions to your home landscape.
Camas (Camassia quamash).
Does well in full sun, but needs wet feet in spring. Not persistent.
Columbine, red (Aquilegia formosa).
One of two columbines native to our region. A winner for two reasons: 1) a
tall (4 ft) clump with later, red/yellow flowers than most garden types, and
2) it seems not to hybridize with other columbines, producing "pure"
Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra
cucullaria). Very early and very nice. Unique white flowers on
Fairy-bells (Disporum hookeri and
D. trachycarpum). Two- to
three-foot leaves with white flowers. Leaves are the most interesting. Does
well in shade and remains in place-just gets larger and more stems with age.
! False Solomon's seal, starry (Smilacina
stellata). A good plant for a shady, naturalized setting where the
spreading habit isn't a consideration. Some have found this plant too
aggressive for a manicured setting.
False Solomon's seal (Smilacina racemosa).
Taller than starry false Solomon's seal, and with showier flowers. Broad
leaves on stiffly arching stems and attractive terminal plumes of tiny white
flowers. Many, bright red fruits.
Kittentails, evergreen (Synthyris
platycarpa). Endemic to the
Clearwater Mountains. Round, scalloped, evergreen leaves; delicate, early
flowers; and heart-shaped fruits.
Kittentails, mountain (Synthyris
missurica var. major) One of the few Idaho plants suitable
for commercial cultivation. Interesting, round, scalloped leaves, 2 to 4
inches across, in a tight cluster. Spikes of bright purple flowers starting
with early crocus and continuing until mid-daffodil time. Does better with a
bit of shade.
Lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus).
This is one of the parents of hybrid multi-hued garden lupines and well
worth cultivating for its spikes of blue/purple flowers. Vigorous plant to 3
ft with flowering stems taller.
Lupine, silky (Lupinus sericeus).
Beautiful, silvery-blue, silky foliage and lavender to blue flowers. Sun.
Meadowrue, purple (Thalictrum
dasycarpum). 4 to 5-ft beauty needs moist soil. Delicate,
columbine-like foliage. Doesn't spread like other species of Thalictrum.
Meadowrue, western (Thalictrum
occidentalis). To about 3 ft
tall. Easy to grow, not too rambunctious, and does well in shade. Very
attractive leaves, and interesting, but rather inconspicuous, flowers.
! Strawberry, wild (Fragaria vesca
bracteata). Wonderfully flavored fruits (fraises of French
gourmet fame), attractive flowers and leaves, BUT it is super aggressive.
Its sole wish is to populate your yard with a carpet of strawberry plants.
! Violet, Canada (Viola canadensis).
Very vigorous groundcover blooming with early tulips, but very aggressive
and will grow into lawn.
Violet, Nuttall's (Viola nuttallii).
Early (mid-daffodil time) and BIG yellow flowers. Keeps a compact bunch.
Throws occasional seedlings.
Violet, pioneer (Viola glabella).
Good, reliable, early, yellow-flowering violet. Not as showy as V.
nuttallii, but endures shade better. Makes a colony in a few years, but
easy to keep in bounds.
Wild ginger (Asarum caudatum).
A superb ground-cover for light to heavy shade. Heart-shaped, evergreen
leaves are rather drab in early spring, but by mid-April they are
half-expanded with shiny new leaves. Makes a dense cover. Flowers not
obvious, but fun to uncover and show to the uninitiated.
Some plants to avoid in home gardens:
The following species need lots of room to
Asters (Aster spp.)
Goldenrods (Solidago spp.)
Pearly everlasting (Anaphalis margaritacea)
Our native ferns from forest habitats do very
well in cultivation. They are ideal in shade or partial shade, but need
summer irrigation to succeed. These species may be available from nurseries
that specialize in ferns. There are also several species of rock ferns from
dry habitats in northern Idaho that are very difficult to grown in the rock
Ladyfern (Athyrium filix-femina).
The common tall fern of wet streambottoms and moist cedar groves. Although
it does well in cultivation, it will die back in late summer unless given
lots of water. Male fern is very similar.
Maidenhair fern (Adiantum pedatum).
The most unique of our ferns-lacey fronds about 2 ft tall on black, wiry
stems. Despite it's delicate appearance, it will do just fine with summer
watering. Dies down in winter.
Male fern (Dryopteris filix-mas).
Possibly the most outstanding fern of our forests with 3-ft fronds that are
held more upright than other ferns. Dies back in winter.
Swordfern (Polystichum munitum).
This stout, evergreen fern is the most common fern in northern Idaho and is
the one frequently used in floral arrangements. It is also the most
resistant to dry conditions, though it still needs summer watering, and it
will do OK in anything but extreme sun positions.
Swordfern, Anderson (Polystichum
andersonii). Not easily found, but a beautiful evergreen fern of some
2.5 ft, with finely dissected fronds and an interesting bulbil near the
Mountain woodfern (Dryopteris
austriaca and D. carthusiana). Both beautiful ferns and
similar to one another in appearance, but D. carthusiana is
(The first four are the major components of northern Idaho grasslands)
Bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum,
Pseudoroegneria spicata). Along
with Idaho fescue, this bunchgrass once dominated the Palouse grassland.
Suitable for dry sites, but not well-suited to controlling erosion,
although a rhizomatous form is native to our area. Divergent awns on
seedheads are distinctive.
Bluegrasses (Poa spp.):
Native bluegrasses are bunch-forming (caespitose) rather than spreading and
go by various Latin names including Poa juncifolia, Poa secunda,
Poa sandbergii, and Poa ampla. They are the earliest grasses
to green-up and set seed. Local cultivars are available.
Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis).
Low clumps of very fine leaves. Does
best on cooler aspects.
Junegrass (Koeleria cristata, K.
macrantha). A rather
inconspicuous but lovely member of our regional grasslands.
Mountain brome (Bromus marginatus).
For moist sites and cooler aspects.
Tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia cespitosa).
LOCAL SOURCES OF NATIVE PLANTS:
Buffaloberry Farms (retail and wholesale). 51
E. Lake Fork Rd., McCall, ID 83638;
Plants of the Wild (wholesale). PO Box 866,
Tekoa, WA. 509/284-2848; www.plantsofthewild.com
Prairie Bloom Nursery (retail). Moscow-Pullman
Rd., Pullman, WA
University of Idaho Research Nursery; College
of Forestry, Wildlife and Range Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID
FOR A LARGE SELECTION OF FERNS:
Fancy Fronds. Mail order; PO Box 1090, Gold
Bar, WA 98251. 360-793-1472. www.fancyfronds.com
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION:
Fitzgerald, T., S. McCrea, D. Notske, M. Burtt,
and M. Terrell. Native and Adapted Landscape Plant List for the Inland
Northwest. Washington State University Cooperative Extension, Spokane
County, Spokane, WA. 99 p.
Fitzgerald, T. and Michael C. Terrell. (No
date). Landscaping with Native Plants for the Inland Northwest. Washington
State University/Spokane County Cooperative Extension, 222 N. Havana,
Spokane, WA 99202. (509) 477-2048.
Johnson, F.D. 1995. Wild Trees of Idaho.
University of Idaho Press. Moscow, Idaho. 212 p.
Kruckeberg, A.R. 1982. Gardening with Native
Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press. Seattle,
Washington. 252 p.
Patterson, P.A., K.E. Neiman, and J.R. Tonn.
1985. Field Guide to Forest Plants of Northern Idaho. USDA Forest
Service, Intermountain Research Station. General Technical Report INT-180.
USDA, NRCS Plant Materials Center, Pullman, WA